All buildings in the world need stairs even if they are private houses or multi-story high-rise buildings. They are the main access between levels and therefore play a crucial role in any building plan.
Stairs can be made in a broad range of shapes and sizes usually using different construction materials such as concrete, wood, iron or other metals.
Materials & Tools
– 2×6 lumber for treads; 2 x 12’s for stringers; framing square;
– hand saw; circular saw; circular saw blade;
– carpentry level; masking tape.
Staircases consist of the following basic parts:
a) Stringers – there are usually, 2 stringers on each side of the stairs; their role is structural, to support the stairs.
b) Tread – signify the width of the staircase
c) Riser – signify the high of the staircase
The basic dimensions of a staircase are:
a) The Staircase Height – the distance between the landing point and the final point;
b) The Staircase Total Run – the horizontal distance between the landing point edge and the upper floor edge
1. Measure the Staircase Height — First you should measure the staircase height; then lay down 2x4s using your carpentry level.
2. Calculate the Stair Number — Now, having the staircase height, you can calculate easily the required number of stairs. So, divide the staircase height by 7.25. The result is the stair number of your future staircase. Make sure the calculation is correct.
3. Determine the Tread Number — Determining the number of treads is simple.
Tread Number = total run of the stairs – a stair; In other words, if your intention is to build 15stairs, then you need 14 treads because the last stair does not require a tread.
4. Find the Level — You need to find out your staircase level. As the riser and stair heights can vary, you need to calculate the exact riser height. Therefore, divide the total height by the step number to be built.
5. Laying Your Stairs — You can use 2 x12stringers to make a square frame. You will use this frame to lay your stairs. Level the framesquare and draw its outline. Place your frame carefully on top of your mark, check the frame level again, and make a new mark. Continue in the same way until the entire the staircase length has been covered.
6. Cutting — Use a circular saw and cut carefully along your marked lines. For corners, use a hand saw.Make sure your measurements are correct. Fix temporarily the first stringer in place making some adjustments if it is necessary.
7. Stair Treads Installation — Nail the treads and stringers to the floor. Start installing the treads only from the bottom upwards.
If your staircase has steep steps, it will require a handrail as a safety measure.
Make sure your stringers are strong enough for your stairs.